Máté Szarka

About the direction of the applied research of space colonization: a life study of different types of microorganisms (fungi, mold, bacteria).

Máté Szarka

The writing of this article was prompted by the author’s article of Mr. Alexandrov [1], in which he raises the issue of sanitary and phytosanitary standards, preventing accretion of Named terrestrial organisms on the planet.
As a graduate of biotechnology, the author of this article, admits another important aspect of space research in various types of micro-organisms: fungi, mold, bacteria for space colonization, based on their study, published in [2].
In this popular science article we consider the direction of the applied space research of microorganisms on the example of phytosanitary security space colonies on planets and natural satellites of the planets in the Solar system.
Imagine that somewhere in a mini underground station, which is operated by the watch space engineers in rotation method, serving on the Moon Mining and Processing Plant, a new form of the disease caused by lack of air conditioning or air regeneration. This infection can be worse than others [3].
And so, biological studies have shown that weightlessness is a useful factor which drives the growth of microorganisms in space, if the microorganism is not exposed to hard radiation, This has been proven in the experiment study of the normal activity of radiation-induced DNA damage repair mechanisms [4].
Furthermore, in space inoculation cultures of microorganisms increased by virulence factors, i.e. substances that facilitate the survival and proliferation, colonization factors, enterotoxins hemolysin and transcriptional regulatory mechanisms change.
Weightlessness also leads to abnormal cell proliferation and secretion of metabolites in eukaryotic cells in culture; phenomenon recently established by the example of the microorganism Candida albicans [5].
The last mission of NASA, provides new ways to study microorganisms using autonomous nano-satellites to perform complex experiments with bacterial radiation in the form of a payload, such as LEO [6], [7].
On this basis, it would be natural to develop the idea further in engineering experiment with Aspergillus spp within the company VitroLink, LLC [8].
It is known that in terrestrial conditions fungi Aspergillus spp. the most common fungi that live in dwellings. These fungi are found on spoiled food, organic waste. These mushrooms are thermally stable. Their main danger to the human body – the damage of the respiratory tract, causing severe allergic diseases such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis,
Consider the microorganisms with a very complex development lifecycle. Spores germinate on a suitable medium and begin to form a very complex network of filaments called mycelium, About 15 hours later, the concrete structure (ondiofory) appear bearing conidia ( asexual spores ), Because of the color of conidia colony turns green. Edge colonies grow in the direction as long as they do not absorb the entire environment. Center of the colony begins to autolysis (self-dissolution of living cells under the influence of their own hydrolytic enzymes that destroy the structure of the molecule),
In this regard, autolysis of the dead cells of fungal material can be reused to support the growth or formation of conidia. The life cycle begins again in conidia. Aspergillus spores have strong cell walls, making them highly resistant to various stress conditions, e.g., radiation, pressure, heat and oxidation process.
The persistence of spores allows us to study the growth and development in a variety of situations. Such micro organisms were studied on Earth, but we do not have information about the effects of weightlessness, but we do not have information about the effects of weightlessness on the reproduction of Asp. in space.
What can we do? The author’s research shows that it is necessary to study:
method of germination;
method of growth and colony formation;
method of conidia formation method of autolysis way.

Acknowledgements.

The author is grateful to Doctor of Biological Sciences István Pócsi [9] and Doctor in Engineering Sciences Tino Schmiel for their invaluable assistance as mentors and advisers on his master’s thesis, as well as their assistance in choosing the author of a promising area of research space colonization,
Also, the author is grateful to the chief editor, the editorial board of the Space Colonization Journal and personally Vladimir Dobrydnyev [11] for a discussion of the application of the results in the author’s work for the space engineering.
The author was given to the fact that his study is important from the point of view of Space Engineering and needs the support of organizations interested in the perspective of applied research. This is due to the fact that in the transition Space Engineering to the next stage of development, when the elements of units and details will be a biomechanical material and will need to deal with a variety of synthetic diseases associated with exposure to micro-organisms on the biomechanical materials. For example, biomechanical skeleton or robotic systems with the properties of living tissues will be molded at those who work on the extraction of minerals in the martian or lunar mines. It may also be a problem dealing with mold in bioelectronics, for example, bio transistors,
The author expresses his profound gratitude to the magazine illustrator Marina Usenko, who found a form of expression in the author’s note of the picture collage.

REFERENCES:
[1] Svetoslav D. Alexandrov. А new rationale for space colonization. Space Colonization Journal, Vol. 8, 2013.
URL: http://jour.space/volumes/vol8/
[2] Máté Szarka. Conceptual testing of the autonomous microbial investigator, a device of space mycology. Space Colonization Journal, Vol. 22, 2014. URL: http://jour.space/volumes/vol22/
[3] http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0090605/
[4] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/016816569601382X
[5] Aurélie Crabbé, Sheila M. Nielsen-Preiss, Christine M. Woolley, Jennifer Barrila, Kent Buchanan, James McCracken, Diane O. Inglis, Stephen C. Searles, Mayra A. Nelman-Gonzalez, C. Mark Ott, James W. Wilson, Duane L. Pierson, Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, Cheryl A. Nickerson, Linda E. Hyman, Cheryl A. Nickerson. Spaceflight Enhances Cell Aggregation and Random Budding in Candida albicans. Plose One, December 04, 2013. URL: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0080677#pone.0080677-McCullough1
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[7] Nicholson WL1, Ricco AJ, Agasid E, Beasley C, Diaz-Aguado M, Ehrenfreund P, Friedericks C, Ghassemieh S, Henschke M, Hines JW, Kitts C, Luzzi E, Ly D, Mai N, Mancinelli R, McIntyre M, Minelli G, Neumann M, Parra M, Piccini M, Rasay RM, Ricks R, Santos O, Schooley A, Squires D, Timucin L, Yost B, Young A. The O/OREOS mission: first science data from the Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) payload. Astrobiology. 2011 Dec;11(10), pp. 951-958. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22091486
[8] https://www.linkedin.com/company/vitrolink-llc-
[9] http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Istvan_Pocsi/info
[10] http://tu-dresden.de/die_tu_dresden/fakultaeten/fakultaet_maschinenwesen/ilr/rfs/staff/document.2010-09-08.3368629051
[11] http://jour.space/profile/v.dobrydnyev/